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  • Mobile learning for teachers in North America: exploring the potential of mobile technologies to support teachers and improve practice

    These include moving from one-size - - fits-all - to personalized PD; focusing PD on changing pedagogy rather than training teachers to use new technologies; using mobile technologies to make PD accessible during teachers naturally occurring downtime; and setting aside time for collaboration among teachers in a school or district.
    Mobile learning is still an emergent field, and the use of mobile devices for PD and teacher support in North America is not well-documented - ( Ally and Palalas, in press ).
    Although most Canadians own a mobile device, the majority do not use technology for learning; in a recent survey, 47 of employers said that less than half of their employees use mobile devices for either formal or informal learning ( Ally and Palalas, in press ).
    Ideally, PD focused on mobile technologies should facilitate a shift toward active, student-centred - learning and provide concrete examples of how mobile devices can be used to support this approach.
    This paper explores three aspects of mobile learning for teachers in North America: ( 1 ) the use of mobile technologies for professional development; ( 2 ) the use of mobile technologies for teacher support; and ( 3 ) professional development on the instructional use of mobile technologies in schools.
    For the purposes of this paper, professional development for teachers refers to learning opportunities for in-service - teachers and includes formal or informal instruction, mentoring and participation in professional communities, while teacher support is loosely defined as any programme, feature or activity that makes a teacher's job easier or more satisfying.
    School districts and universities represented in this review Abilene Christian University, Texas Canby School District, Oregon Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia Forsyth County School District, Georgia Homewood City Schools, Alabama Katy Independent School District, Texas The Country School, Maryland Radford University, Virginia Rockdale Independent School District, Texas Saddleback Unified School District, California Shelby County Schools, Alabama St. Mary's School, Ohio An online survey was sent via email to the departments of education in all US states and the District of Columbia, and to the ministries of education in all Canadian provinces between September and December 2011.
    ) Arkansas New Jersey California New York Delaware Ohio Illinois South Dakota Iowa Vermont Kansas Washington Maine Michigan Canada Nebraska Alberta Nevada Manitoba New Hampshire Ontario Although tablet devices are being used in education and PD, this study is limited to mobile phones and similar hand-held - devices because of their lower cost and greater mobility.
    PD and mobile learning intersect in three main areas: using mobile technologies for PD; using mobile technologies for teacher support; and PD on the instructional use of mobile technology.
    Mobile technologies can be used to support each type of PD by enhancing face-to - - face instruction and increasing access to online courses or blended learning experiences; improving communication between teachers and mentors; and facilitating participation in online communities.
    Education leaders in the US state of California and the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Manitoba reported using Poll Everywhere in combination with Google applications to enable teachers participating in PD to provide instant feedback and responses to their instructors.
    While not as pervasive as the online learning offered to K 12 students, online PD for teachers seems likely to expand given how rapidly students are engaging in online learning.
    Because it is less expensive than face-to - - face instruction, online PD can be sustained over longer periods of time, offering continuous support to teachers.
    They have 24 / 7 access to a network of collaborative tools and are able use their mobile devices to locate content-specific - resources designed to accommodate a wide variety of learning styles and student needs.
    Because many smartphones are now equipped with powerful cameras and microphones, pre-service - teachers can use mobiles devices in lieu of more expensive video cameras to film themselves teaching a lesson or lesson segment.
    The government support for online professional communities and the number of educators participating in them are a strong indication of the potential benefits of online PLCs and CoPs.
    In Canada, for example, adults spend more time on informal learning than on formal learning; withholding credit for the former means discounting a large portion of the time people spend engaged in professional learning ( Livingston, 2000 ).
    Some online PLCs and CoPs have also developed mobile applications to allow users to download lesson plans, assessments, audio files and videos; rate digital content; comment on resources; and share resources with others, all from their mobile device.
    In Shelby County Schools, a large school district in Alabama, educators are using a mobile application to access Edmodo, an online social network for K 12 education that hosts the district's PLCs.
    In another example, consultants in Winnipeg, Manitoba, often use mobile devices and Twitter during teacher PD sessions and have formed a Twitter group called the Manitoba Educational Tweeters, who tweet on their mobile devices during conferences.
    In the US state of Massachusetts, the Education Development Center and Harvard University's School of Education worked together to develop a three-week - course on using data to inform and support instruction, which was delivered using mobile devices and Twitter ( Hough, 2011 ).
    As budget cuts in the education sector diminish funding for intensive PD opportunities and decrease or eliminate the availability of travel funds for attending PD events, online content repositories can provide a substitute for formal PD by giving teachers access to resources that can contribute to their professional growth and be personalized to their needs ( Pierce et al., 2011 ).
    Research indicates that teachers use of mobile devices for personal tasks, such as maintaining an address book or a journal, contributes to their successful use of these devices for planning instruction and collecting resources ( Leach et al., 2005 ).
    The following sections will describe examples of teachers use of mobile technologies in three main areas: classroom support, communication and personal support.
    The myriad features and tools offered by mobile devices can also aid instruction in core content areas as well as physical education, music and art.
    A QR code is a type of barcode that can store a great deal of digital information and can be decoded quickly by mobile devices.
    The code's pattern of black and white squares can function as a print-based - hyperlink to websites.
    At this point, the use of QR codes in education is still in its infancy, but as QR codes become more widespread, this type of communication may become more common in schools.
    PERSONAL SUPPORT Mobile devices are also being used to offer personal support to teachers through projects like employee wellness programmes.
    PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON THE INSTRUCTIONAL USE OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES In addition to being used for PD delivery and teacher support, mobile technologies are quickly becoming a topic for PD programmes focused on mobile learning for students.
    Approaches to PD on mobile learning include traditional, face-to - - face instruction and collaborative learning through PLCs or CoPs, either alone or in combination with face-to - - face instruction.
    For example, a high-school - social studies teacher who has been using direct instruction supported by PowerPoint presentations may be excited to receive an interactive whiteboard for her classroom, because she has heard a lot about the opportunities to engage learners with this technology.
    Researchers have reported that traditional forms of PD provide little support for teachers to translate their learning into practice, and have recommended restructuring PD opportunities to promote teachers interdependence and collaboration rather than their dependence on outside experts ( Schmoker, 2006 ).
    In Canada, the Ministries of Education for Alberta and Manitoba and the Manitoba Association for Computing Educators all employ traditional delivery methods for PD focused on mobile technology.
    The amount of face-to - - face instruction offered by these institutions varies: some provide three or four days of PD during the school year, sometimes paired with another three or four days in the summer, while others host a conference or provide a series of workshops.
    When their professors use mobile devices for instruction, preservice teachers have the opportunity to observe concrete examples of pedagogical strategies for mobile learning and to consider mobile learning from a student's perspective.
    Mobile devices enable access to online courses and other types of PD opportunities such as PLCs and CoPs, social networking sites, and content repositories at any time, so that teachers can structure their professional growth according to their schedules and preferences.
    Teachers use of mobile learning to access PD opportunities may in turn increase the demand for PD on using mobile technologies for instruction, as teachers see how mobile devices can play a role in facilitating their own professional learning.
    Although some teachers view mobile devices primarily as a distraction for students and are reticent to incorporate mobile learning into their classrooms, many educators believe that mobile technology should be leveraged for instructional use.
    REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS Teachers in the United States and Canada generally need credits or continuing education points for credential recertification.
    As more schools and districts in North America face budget cuts, increasing access to less expensive forms of PD is particularly important ( McNichol et al., 2011 ).
    Move from one-size - - fits-all - to personalized PD Mobile technologies allow teachers to personalize their professional learning and to access new types of PD that may be more effective than traditional, one-size - - fits-all - training sessions.
    Provide time for collaboration among teachers Planning instruction collaboratively is a very effective PD experience for teachers, because their work can be job-embedded -, address immediate concerns, and align with the school's priorities and goals.
    However, there is currently a paucity of research on using mobile technologies for PD and teacher support, and little data on the efficacy of mobile learning for students.
    Quick Response codes catching on in higher education.
    Can you provide examples of professional development that focuses on using mobile technologies in the classroom or for teacher support ( in your own or in other states / provinces or districts / LEAs in your state )?
    Are the examples of professional development on using mobile technologies with students MOST OFTEN offered as a standalone topic or are they integrated into other initiatives / topics ( i. e. mobile technologies for 21st century skills or mobile technologies for middle-school - science teachers )?
    UNESCO WORKING PAPER SERIES ON MOBILE LEARNING Illustrative Initiatives and Policy Implications Turning on Mobile Learning in Africa and the Middle East Turning on Mobile Learning in Asia Turning on Mobile Learning in Europe Turning on Mobile Learning in Latin America Turning on Mobile Learning in North America Turning on Mobile Learning: Global Themes Exploring the Potential of Mobile Technologies to Support Teachers and Improve Practice Mobile Learning for Teachers in Africa and the Middle East Mobile Learning for Teachers in Asia Mobile Learning for Teachers in Europe Mobile Learning for Teachers in Latin America Mobile Learning for Teachers in North America Mobile Learning for Teachers: Global Themes
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  • Weathering uncertainty: traditional knowledge for climate change assessment and adaptation

    Weathering Uncertainty: Traditional knowledge for climate change assessment and adaptation Traditional knowledge for climate change assessment and adaptation United Nations ( GXFDWLRQDO 6FLHQWL¿F DQG Cultural Organization Traditional Knowledge for Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation United Nations ( GXFDWLRQDO 6FLHQWL¿F DQG Cultural Organization Natural Sciences Sector Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems Programme This book should be cited as Nakashima, D.J.., Galloway McLean, K., Thulstrup, H.D.., Ramos Castillo, A. and Rubis, J.T.. 2012.
    This publication is a joint undertaking of UNESCO and UNU Authors Douglas Nakashima, Kirsty Galloway McLean, Hans Thulstrup, Ameyali Ramos Castillo and Jennifer Rubis Editor David McDonald Translation Stéphanie Ledauphin, Ameyali Ramos Castillo, Katya Villarreal Rodríguez Design production Julia Cheftel Cover photo Yann Arthus Bertrand / La Terre vue du ciel Published in 2012 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France, and the United Nations University Traditional Knowledge Initiative, Ellengowan Drive, Darwin, NT 0909, Australia UNESCO and UNU 2012 All rights reserved ISBN 978-92 - - 3-001068 - - 3 ( UNESCO ) ISBN 978-0 - - 9807084-8 - - 6 ( UNU ) The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
    For an electronic version of this publication, please go to www.ipmpcc.. org For further information please contact Douglas Nakashima Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems ( LINKS ) programme and the Climate Frontlines project Section for Small Islands and Indigenous Knowledge, Division of Science Policy and Capacity Building, UNESCO 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France. www.climatefrontlines.. org www. unesco.org. / links Sam Johnston United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies ( UNU-IAS - ), Traditional Knowledge Initiative Building 1, Level 3, Red Precinct Charles Darwin University, Casuarina Campus Ellengowan Drive, Darwin, NT 0909, Australia.. www. unutki. org www.ias.. unu.edu. UNDP GEF Small Grants Programme: / /.. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity www.cbd.. int / secretariat Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable contributions of the International Panel of Experts for the Indigenous Peoples, Marginalized Populations and Climate Change ( IPMPCC ) expert meeting: Kate Brown, University of East Anglia, UK Edwin Castellanos, Research Center for the Environment and Biodiversity, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala Herminia Degawan, International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests, Philippines Igor Krupnik, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, USA Penehuro Lefale, National Weather Service Department, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Roger Pulwarty, Climate and Societal Interactions and National Integrated Drought Information System, NOAA, USA Saul Vincente Vasquez, International Indian Treaty Council, Mexico The authors also acknowledge the review committee that generously contributed their time and expertise in the review of this manuscript: Fikret Berkes, Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada Herminia Degawan, International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests, Philippines Margaret Hiza Redsteer, U.S.. Geological Survey, USA Igor Krupnik, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, USA Jesse Ribot, Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois, USA The authors would also like to thank Sam Johnston, Gleb Raygorodetsky and Marjo Vierros of the United Nations University; the co-chairs - of IPCC Working Group II, Vicente Barros and Chris Fields; the Technical Support Unit of Working Group II, particularly Kris Ebi and all participants of the IPMPCC expert meeting for their contributions to this publication.
    Contents 6 12 18 Chapter 1 Introduction 24 1.1. Background and rationale 1.2. Scope of the report 1.3. Structure of the report 24 25 26 Chapter 2 27 Indigenous Knowledge as a Foundation for Decision-Making - 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. Identifying indigenous peoples Indigenous, traditional or local knowledge Indigenous knowledge and science: a brief history Correlating observations from indigenous and scientific sources 28 28 29 31 34 Chapter 3 Indigenous Knowledge, Vulnerability and Resilience 38 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 39 39 42 43 46 49 51 Context and concepts: vulnerability and resilience Indigenous knowledge and resilience Resilience: stewards of plant and animal diversity Resilience: diversified land use and mobility Resilience: the role of social and cultural institutions Threats to resilience and adaptive capacity Chapter 4 Traditional Livelihoods 52 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 52 53 54 57 58 Context Nomadic or semi-nomadic - pastoralism Small-scale - agriculture Small island production systems Chapter 5 Adaptation Policy and Planning 63 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 64 64 65 66 67 68 Context Policy support for resilience Knowledge co-production -: indigenous and scientific collaboration Information technologies and indigenous knowledge Challenges for adaptation planning Chapter 6 The Americas: Regional Report 72 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 72 72 74 76 76 Context Impacts of climate change Current sensitivity / vulnerability Adaptation and resilience Chapter 7 Arctic / Northern Polar Regions: Regional Report 79 7.1. Context 7.2. Climate change in the Arctic and impacts on indigenous communities 7.3. Indigenous observations of changing weather and climate 7.4. Indigenous knowledge and disaster preparedness 7.5. Indigenous observing systems 79 Chapter 8 Small Islands: Regional Report 88 8.1. 8.2. 8.3. 8.4. 88 90 90 95 Context Small island vulnerabilities and impacts Traditional knowledge for adaptation Challenges to traditional knowledge transmission 80 81 84 85 Chapter 9 Conclusion 97 98 When considering climate change, indigenous peoples and marginalized populations warrant particular attention.
    Community-based - and local knowledge may offer valuable insights into environmental change due to climate change, and complement broader-scale - scientific research with local precision and nuance.
    While the transformations due to climate change are expected to be unprecedented, indigenous knowledge and coping strategies provide a crucial foundation for community-based - adaptation measures.
    Indigenous knowledge was acknowledged in the Fourth Assessment Report ( AR4 ) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) as an invaluable basis for developing adaptation and natural resource management strategies in response to environmental and other forms of change ( IPCC, 2007 ).
    Although nascent in climate science, indigenous knowledge has been widely recognized in fields such as agroforestry, traditional medicine, biodiversity conservation, customary resource management, applied anthropology, impact assessment, and natural disaster preparedness and response.
    This knowledge contributes to climate science by offering observations and interpretations at a much finer spatial scale with considerable temporal depth and by highlighting elements that may not be considered by climate scientists.
    Indigenous knowledge relating to climate change, whether it concerns agricultural techniques, biodiversity, indicators of change, or weather prediction and response, provides the basis for many successful and costeffective adaptation measures.
    Les savoirs autochtones relatifs au changement climatique qu ils concernent les techniques agricoles, la biodiversité, les indicateurs du 16 changement ou encore les techniques de prévision et de réponse aux conditions météorologiques offrent des bases propices au développement de nombreuses mesures d adaptation, la fois efficaces et rentables.
    The IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report ( AR4 ) noted that indigenous knowledge is an invaluable basis for developing adaptation and natural resource management strategies in response to environmental and other forms of change ( Parry et al., 2007 ).
    With respect to the outline that was adopted during the 31st IPCC session in Bali, 26-29 - October 2009, the IPCC specifically notes that Chapters 14 17 will include case studies of, for example, Least Developed Countries, indigenous peoples and other vulnerable countries and groups ( IPCC, 2010b ) and that Chapter 12 on human security will include a section on local and traditional knowledge.
    All of these efforts have contributed to an increasing realization that the observations and assessments of indigenous peoples and local communities offer valuable in situ information, provide for local verification of global scientific models and satellite data sets, and ensure that adaptation measures align with local needs and priorities.
    Structure of the report Topics addressed in this report include: 1 Key concepts for the AR5 chapters on Foundations for decision-making - and Human security, as they relate to: identifying indigenous peoples; conceptualizing local and traditional knowledge; and understanding their contributions to understanding climate change risks, vulnerabilities and opportunities, as well as adaptation ( Chapter 2 ); The need to analyse vulnerability in terms of exposure, sensitivity and capacity to respond, and thus bring recognition to the resilience of indigenous peoples and local communities and the role of traditional and indigenous knowledge ( Chapter 3 ); Case studies of the impacts of climate change on traditional livelihoods and the adaptation opportunities rooted in traditional and indigenous knowledge and practice ( Chapter 4 ); The emerging role for adaptation planning and implementation to optimize the adaptive capacities of communities by reinforcing their endogenous resilience based on indigenous knowledge, practices and coping strategies, while avoiding policies that constrain and undermine traditional response capacities.
    Indigenous Knowledge as a Foundation for Decision-Making - Indigenous peoples live in all regions of the world and own, occupy or use resources on some 22 of the global land area, which in turn harbours 80 of the world's biological diversity.
    Although nascent in climate science, indigenous knowledge has been widely recognized in fields such as agroforestry, traditional medicine, biodiversity conservation, customary resource management, applied anthropology, impact assessment and natural disaster preparedness and response.
    This knowledge contributes to climate science by offering observations and interpretations at a much finer spatial scale with considerable temporal depth, and by highlighting elements that may not be considered by climate scientists.
    In particular, the knowledge of local and indigenous peoples often referred to as local, indigenous or traditional knowledge is increasingly recognized as an important source of climate knowledge and adaptation strategies.
    Indigenous knowledge is already seen as pivotal in fields such as sustainable development, agroforestry, traditional medicine, applied anthropology, biodiversity conservation and natural resource management, and many are expecting this knowledge to play a prominent role in climate science and in facilitating adaptation to climate variability and change.
    It provides brief illustrations of the long history of interaction between scientific and traditional knowledge, and presents a few case studies of how indigenous knowledge has influenced environmental decision-making - during recent decades.
    Common terms include but are not limited to indigenous knowledge, traditional knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge ( TEK ), local knowledge, farmers knowledge, folk knowledge and indigenous science.
    30 Indigenous knowledge has already made substantial contributions in many fields: biodiversity conservation and wildlife management ( Freeman and Carbyn, 1988; Inglis, 1993; Berkes, 2012 ), customary marine resource management ( Johannes, 1978; 2002; Hickey, 2006; Haggan, Neis and Baird, 2007 ), rural development and agroforestry ( Falanruw, 1989; Scoones and Thompson, 1994; Sillitoe, Bicker and Pottier, 2002 ), traditional medicine and health ( Ford et al., 2010; Pourchez, 2011 ), impact assessment ( Sadler and Boothroyd, 1994; Usher, 2000 ); and natural disaster preparedness and response ( Shaw, Uly and Baumwall, 2008 ).
    Indigenous knowledge and science: a brief history While indigenous knowledge is an emerging area of interest for climate scientists, the exchange of knowledge between scientists and indigenous peoples dates back to the very origins of science.
    Colonial science borrows from indigenous knowledge Traditional knowledge is as ancient as humankind, and it is in traditional knowledge that the origins of science are rooted.
    ( Orlove et al., 2002: 428 ) 34 In recent years, climate change, local communities and indigenous peoples have become a rapidly expanding area of joint investigation involving social scientists, notably anthropologists, climate scientists and indigenous peoples.
    More recent regional reviews of the scientific and grey literature on climate change adaptation planning for the western Canadian Arctic cite 140 references ( Pearce et al., 2011 ), while Ford et al. ( In press ) cover 162 references in their literature review of human dimensions of climate change research for the central and eastern Canadian Arctic.
    Such observations have been recorded for indigenous peoples around the world, for example, in the Arctic ( e. g. Krupnik and Jolly, 2002; Nichols et al., 2004; Oozeva et al., 2004; Gearheard et al., 2006; Vlassova, 2006; Laidler et al., 2009; Aporta and MacDonald, 2011 ), Africa ( e. g. Ovuka Lindqvist, 2000; West et al., 2008; ), Asia ( e. g. Raj, 2006; Crate, 2008; Marin, 2010 ) and North America ( e. g. Turner and Clifton, 2009; Jacob et al., 2010 ).
    Indigenous Knowledge, Vulnerability and Resilience Indigenous peoples and marginalized populations are particularly exposed and sensitive to climate change impacts due to their resource-based - livelihoods and the location of their homelands in marginal environments.
    Overview It has become common currency to argue that indigenous peoples are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to their dependence upon resource-based - livelihoods and the location of homelands in marginal habitats, such as polar regions, desert margins or high altitude areas.
    39 Current research on vulnerability to climate change suggests that indigenous communities are among those who suffer the most from the economic, social and environmental stresses triggered by a changing climate, in part due to small population sizes, isolation, and the absence of recognized rights over their territories and resources ( Ribot et al., 1996; Adger and Kelly, 2001; Adger et al., 2004 ).
    One approach is to differentiate among the constituent parts of vulnerability: exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity ( Prno et al., 2011; see also Eriksen, Brown and Kelly, 2005; Parkins and MacKendrick, 2007; Tschakert, 2007; Forbes, 2008; Ford et al., 2008; Keskitalo, 2008; Young et al., 2010 ).
    ( IIPFCC, 2009 ) At global climate change forums, indigenous peoples have long maintained two positions: first, that their homelands are being transformed irreversibly by climate change, and second, that they have unique contributions to make towards climate decision-making - due to their extensive experiential knowledge.
    Interlinkages between traditional knowledge and genetic resources in adaptation to climate variability in China, Bolivia and Kenya Swiderska et al. carried out participatory research with indigenous communities on the impacts of climate change.
    In north-east - India, high crop diversity more than 40 crops in a shifting cultivation landscape, and high diversity of crop varieties are fundamental to maintaining resilience and ensuring adaptation ( Trakansuphakon, 2010 ).
    In an analysis of over 350 case studies of indigenous peoples adaptation in domains such as agriculture, water management, coastal management, disaster response and health, Galloway McLean ( 2010 ) concluded that the most common adaptation responses by indigenous peoples involved adjustments required to adapt livelihoods to changing climatic conditions.
    In their discussion on climate change impacts on remote Pacific island communities in the Solomon Islands, Rasmussen et al. ( 2009 ) remark that it is methodologically complex to distinguish adaptive actions and strategies directly related to climate change from general livelihood strategies, which also take into account climatic variability and the risks of extreme weather events.
    With respect to African pastoralist communities, the IPCC noted in the AR4 that: Mobility remains the most important pastoralist adaptation to spatial and temporal variations in rainfall, and in drought years many communities make use of fall-back - grazing areas unused in normal dry seasons because of distance, land tenure constraints, animal disease problems or conflict.
    ( IPCC, 2007: 293 ) Subsequent literature on pastoralism in the East African context has stressed the importance of traditional knowledge as a basis for climate change adaptation among pastoral communities, while also noting that external interventions may unintentionally undermine the ability of traditional knowledge-based - systems 54 to respond to environmental change.
    In the Sahel, climate change adaptation strategies based on indigenous knowledge and practice include the application of indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting, the use of emergency fodder in times of drought, multi-species - variability in herd composition to survive climate extremes ( e. g. changing from cattle to sheep to goat husbandry depending on the availability and condition of pastures ), and a reduction in pressure on stressed grazing areas through a circular movement from dry to wet areas ( Nyong, Adesina and Osman Elasha, 2007 ).
    Swiderska et al. highlight the importance of maintaining diverse traditional crop varieties and access to seeds in case studies in China, Bolivia and Kenya ( see Box 3.1. ), while Andean farmers maintain a high number of potato varieties ( Argumedo and Yun Loong Wong, 2010 ), and Karen rice farmers in Thailand employ seed exchange and social networks ( Pusadee, 2009 ).
    Adaptation of small island societies in Papua New Guinea and the Torres Islands Mid and long-term - environmental fluctuations have long been a part of Melanesian engagements with the physical world, and have consequently given rise to coping strategies that are inherent to traditional knowledge practices.
    The authors argue that overall changes to the local shoreline, especially in relation to soil quality, vegetation growth and hydrodynamics, as provoked by extreme seismic uplift and downlift, offer a unique and informative example of the longterm adaptability that is present in both the human population and the observed coastal milieu of these islands, and is applicable to climate change adaptation.
    In an overview of climate change and food security in the Pacific, FAO notes that Pacific women are mostly responsible for gleaning inshore waters and reefs for fish, shellfish and other marine products [ P ] rojections for more intense tropical cyclones and rise in sea surface temperature will negatively impact inshore fisheries, affect women's source of income and, more importantly, hamper household food supply, especially in the rural areas.
    Resilience of artisanal fishing in Cape Verde Traditional fishing communities are vulnerable to climate change due to increasing uncertainty of resource availability and access.
    In other words, adaptation planning at local, national and international levels may be fruitfully directed at creating a policy environment that facilitates the fullest expression of indigenous adaptive capacity in the face of climate change ( Ford et al., 2007; Ford, Pearce, Duerden et al., 2010; Nyong, Adesina and Osman Elasha, 2007 ).
    But national strategies developed and implemented by governmental agencies are often not conducive to indigenous efforts to adapt to climate change, which are rooted in local knowledge, sustainable livelihoods and community-based - innovation.
    Crop and herd diversity, landscape diversity, linguistic diversity and diversity of livelihoods are all components of cultural and biological diversity.
    This loss of indigenous language and knowledge weakens the social capital of younger generations, which may result in diminished survival skills in the face of an increasingly uncertain Arctic environment ( Ford et al., 2010 ); reduced knowledge of pastures and watering places that may place herds in sub-Saharan - Africa at risk in times of drought ( Ole Saibatu, see IPMPCC, 2011 ); or limited familiarity with cultivars that may reduce adaptation options for subsistence farmers facing increased climate variability in the Andes, Africa and Asia ( see Box 3.1. ).
    Policies that promote bothways education, nurturing indigenous language and knowledge alongside mainstream instruction, provide young generations with options and sources of innovation that may strengthen community resilience in the face of change ( Ford, Pearce, Duerden et al., 2010 ).
    Knowledge co-production -: indigenous and scientific collaboration The challenges brought on by global climate change are beyond the lived experience of all knowledge holders, whether scientific or indigenous ( Huntington et al., 2005; Nuttall et al., 2005 ).
    66 Chapter 5: Adaptation Policy and Planning Armitage et al. define knowledge co-production - as the collaborative process of bringing a plurality of knowledge sources and types together to address a defined problem and build an integrated or systems-oriented - understanding of that problem ( 2011: 996 ).
    In the Arctic, remote sensing ( through use of satellite research systems such as Landsat and AMSR-E - ) and other scientific methods ( e. g. meteorology, modelling ) are being combined with the indigenous knowledge of Sami and Nenets reindeer herders to co-produce - datasets to improve decision-making -, herd management and adaptation strategies ( Maynard et al., 2005 ).
    In their analysis of collaborative management and community-based - monitoring in the Arctic, Berkes et al. ( 2007 ) underline the capacity of indigenous observation to make sense of complex changes in the environment through qualitative assessment of numerous variables ( as opposed to science's quantitative assessment of a few ).
    The Igliniit project in Arctic Canada, co-designed - by Inuit hunters and geomatics engineers, allows hunters to observe and monitor environmental change during their displacements on the land using a device that combines a Global Positioning System ( GPS ), a personal data assistant ( PDA ) and a mobile weather-monitoring - device ( Gearheard et al., 2011 ).
    The great majority of initiatives are limited to addressing short-term - or interannual climate pressures, and are intertwined with related sustainable development activities, such as disaster management planning and income diversification strategies ( Galloway McLean, 2010 ).
    While a few robust impact assessments that incorporate indigenous knowledge have been undertaken ( e. g. ACIA, 2005 ), and while adaptation research is well underway in some regions ( notably in the Arctic as reported by Ford et al., 2010 ), in the vast majority of regions occupied by indigenous peoples and local communities there is a paucity of information and research.
    Indigenous knowledge relating to climate change, whether it concerns agricultural techniques, biodiversity, indicators of change or weather prediction and response, provides the basis for many successful and cost-effective - adaptation measures.
    Indigenous knowledge transmission is threatened by social, cultural and environmental drivers, including climate change, resulting in erosion of the knowledge base and its potential to respond to climate change.
    It explores adaptation measures based on indigenous knowledge relating to climate change ( agricultural techniques, reliance on biodiversity, indicators of change, weather prediction and response ), and discusses threats to resilience in the region.
    Based on their in-depth - knowledge of the ecological systems in their own localities ( Gadgil, Berkes and Folks, 1993; Schmidt and Peterson, 2009 ), indigenous peoples in the Americas are exploring multiple adaptation strategies, including agricultural techniques, interpretation of environmental indicators of change, the ability to predict and prepare for climatic variation, and maintenance of biodiverse areas ( Berkes, 2012 ).
    For the Lac du Flambeau Indian Tribe in the United States, continued changes in water quality and hydrological patterns due to climate change could produce conditions that displace the production of wild rice, a food source central to Ojibwe traditions and spirituality ( Dussias, 2009 ).
    Atmospheric temperatures are also affecting the geographical range of disease vectors, causing new health problems, for example, new strains of malaria in the Amazon and increased frequency of pneumonia in the Andean region ( Montenegro and Stephens, 2006; Greer et al., 2008; Feo et al., 2009 ).
    Current sensitivity / vulnerability Climate change is increasing existing vulnerabilities of indigenous peoples by threatening the assets that indigenous peoples depend on for their livelihoods and wellbeing: land, socio-cultural - practices, governance structures and natural resources.
    But climate change is making it more difficult for indigenous peoples to accurately predict or adequately prepare for unforeseen changes, resulting in loss of social and political capital.
    Adaptation and resilience Recent literature suggests that the ability to withstand shocks and stresses to livelihoods is especially important in adapting to climate change and variability ( Hanazaki et al., In press; Thomas et al., 2007 ).
    This research has greatly advanced understanding of the significance of traditional knowledge for: First-hand - documentation of climate change effects and responses based on observations, understandings and interpretations of Arctic peoples; Community-based - assessments of risks and challenges to human security associated with climate change; and Co-production - of knowledge of vital importance for understanding climate change risks, vulnerability and adaptation, through the collaboration of indigenous peoples with scientists, both natural and social.
    Arctic sea ice cover at the end of the melt season has hit record lows, and this downward trend is accelerating ( Stroeve, 2009; Stroeve et al., 2012 ), Over the next century, climate change is expected to accelerate, contributing further to the major physical, ecological, social and economic changes already underway in the region ( MacDonald, 2010 ).
    Reindeer herding the millennia-old - tradition of more than 20 different indigenous peoples across the circumpolar North is also being challenged by climate change ( Oskal et al., 2009; Magga et al., 2010 ).
    Indigenous observations of changing weather and climate Adaptation to climate change has lately emerged as a priority for the global community ( Parry et al., 2009 ).
    For over two decades, Arctic indigenous men and women have been reporting environmental changes resulting from a shifting climate ( Huntington et al., 2004; Huntington et al., 2005; Krupnik and Jolly, 2002 ).
    Based on their knowledge and experience, Inuit hunters of Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada, report increasingly erratic weather and wind conditions that undermine their traditional weather forecasting ( Gearheard et al., 2010 ).
    Given that climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, the mastery of survival skills embedded in traditional knowledge is increasingly important in rapidly changing and potentially lifethreatening circumstances ( Aporta, 2009; Laidler et al., 2009; Aporta, 2010; Ford, Pearce et al., 2010; Laidler et al., 2010; Aporta and MacDonald, 2011 ).
    Ford et al. ( 2007 ) argue, however, that even though climate change may call into question specific elements of traditional knowledge, the mainstays of life on the land in the Arctic will remain the same.
    Local languages, being site-specific -, serve as vehicles for sharing knowledge and experiences about a dynamic and potentially risky environment that is now subject to rapid and unpredictable change due to climate change ( Krupnik and Weyapuk, 2010 ).
    Suggesting that traditional knowledge in the small island context is an area requiring further study, the AR4 notes that: With respect to technical measures, countries may wish to pay closer attention to the traditional technologies and skills that have allowed island communities to cope successfully with climate variability in the past.
    In 2010, in the context of the five-year - review of the Mauritius Strategy for the further implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS, the United Nations General Assembly Acknowledge [ d ] that climate change and sea-level - rise continue to pose a significant risk to small island developing states and their efforts to achieve sustainable development and, for some, represent the gravest of threats to their survival and viability ( United 89 Nations, 2010: 2 ), further noting that climate change would likely have an adverse impact on small island economies and sustainability given the projected severe impacts on key sectors of small island economies such as tourism.
    Other consequences of climate change that impact the livelihoods of small island peoples, include: invasion of alien species; loss of coastal land and infrastructure due to erosion, tidal surges and increase in frequency and severity of cyclones; destruction of coral reefs and marine ecosystems from warming and acidifying oceans; decrease in food security due to the loss of food sources such as fisheries due to coral bleaching, livestock and agricultural crops from extreme temperatures, changes in the seasons and severity of rainfall; loss of drinkable water through changes in precipitation, sea-level - rise and inundation by sea water; and increase in infectious diseases, including dengue fever, malaria, cholera and diarrheal outbreaks ( Galloway McLean, 2010 ).
    Traditional knowledge for adaptation For small island peoples, adaptation to environmental change is not a recent phenomenon, especially given the constraints of the islands physical dimensions and relative geographical isolation.
    Commenting on the role of cultural practices and values in determining adaptive responses to environmental change in the archipelago of the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific, Kuruppu ( 2009: 800 ) notes that: Recent scholarship on climate adaptation has overlooked the influential role of cultural values in structuring people's adaptive capacity ( Berkes and Jolly, 2001; Hulme et al., 2007; Leduc, 2006 ).
    The principle of distributing environmental risk appears as a central element in small islands indigenous resilience strategies, whether it takes the form of the scattering of food production sites in the Torres Islands, or the diversity of sources and traditional preservation techniques of post-disaster - foodstuffs found in Tuvalu.
    Challenges to traditional knowledge transmission While the examples discussed in this chapter illustrate the considerable potential for traditional knowledge to contribute to present-day - climate change adaptation strategies in small islands, it should be noted that traditional knowledge in the small island context is in many cases rapidly eroding due to the interruption of intergenerational knowledge transmission.
    Even though the transformations brought about by global climate change will undoubtedly surpass the lived experience of everyone, including indigenous peoples, a strong case can nonetheless be made for recognising indigenous resilience as the basis for indigenous adaptation, and for fostering their fullest expression.
    Recent partnerships between indigenous peoples and scientists are producing new knowledge in response to the emerging challenges of climate change.
    Advancing adaptation planning for climate change in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region ( ISR ): a review and critique.
    Arctic residents observations and human impact assessments in understanding environmental changes in boreal forests: Russian experience and circumpolar perspectives.
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  • Shaping the education of tomorrow: 2012 report on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, abridged

    UNESCO 2012 All rights reserved ISBN 978-92 - - 3-001076 - - 8 This publication Shaping the Education of Tomorrow: 2012 Report on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, Abridged is a condensed, adapted and edited version of Shaping the Education of Tomorrow: 2012 Full-length - Report on the UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Development authored by Arjen E.J.. Wals, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, and commissioned by UNESCO.
    Cover photos: ©UN Photo / Eric Kanalstein ©UN Photo / Milton Grant ©UN Photo / Kibae Park ©UN Photo / Kibae Park Designed and printed by UNESCO Printed in France ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our appreciation goes to Arjen Wals, UNESCO Chair in Social Learning and Sustainable Development, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, for reading hundreds of Monitoring and Evaluation ( M E ) survey responses and other sources of information about Education for Sustainable Development and writing the 2012 Monitoring and Evaluation Report on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.
    The members of the group include: Abelardo Brenes, Rangachar Govinda, Alex Michalos, Yoshiyuki Nagata, Roël van Raaij, Overson Shumba, Konai Thaman, Pierre Varcher and Alcyone Vasconcelos.
    A noticeable difference from the early DESD years is the private sector's interest in sustainability and capacity-building - for a green economy.
    The evidence base was generated through Member State surveys, key informant surveys, regional synthesis reports, and case studies.
    ( Opening Statement, Bonn Declaration, generated by the participants of the UNESCO World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development ) ( UNESCO, 2009b ) The UN DESD promotes the vision of a more sustainable and more just global community through different forms of education, public awareness and training activities.
    ( UNESCO, 2012b ) The DESD is working to provide countries with opportunities to incorporate ESD into education reform efforts to contribute simultaneously to SD and educational quality by: facilitating networking, linkages, exchange and interaction among ESD stakeholders; fostering increased quality of teaching, learning, research and capacity building in ESD; supporting countries in realizing the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) through ESD efforts; offering ESD as an umbrella concept for emerging educations ( e. g. climate change, disaster risk reduction ); At the beginning of the Decade, UNESCO and countries around the world concentrated on further developing ESD and prioritizing strategies.
    See: h p: / / www. un. org / esa / dsd / agenda21 / UNESCO was designated task manager of Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 on education, training and public awareness, with four overarching goals: Promote and improve the quality of education: The aim is to refocus lifelong education on knowledge, skills and values citizens need to improve their quality of life; Reorient the existing education programmes: From pre-school - to university, education must be rethought and reformed to be a vehicle of knowledge, thought patterns and values needed to build a sustainable world; Raise public awareness and understanding of the concept of sustainable development: This will make it possible to develop enlightened, active and responsible citizenship locally, nationally and internationally; Train the workforce: Continuing technical and vocational education of directors and workers, particularly those in trade and industry, will be enriched to enable them to adopt sustainable modes of production and consumption.
    The Bonn Declaration was a call for action for me; ( Belton, 2012 ) Immediately following the Bonn Conference, the Ministry of Education in Zambia undertook to: develop a National Framework for the implementation of EE [ environmental education ] and ESD, integrate EE and ESD at all level of formal education, launch a National EE and ESD campaign, prod the University of Zambia to spearhead the implementation of EE and ESD, involve other line ministries, civil societies, Universities and NGOs to improve their working in favour of EE and ESD.
    At least four lenses of ESD can be distinguished: An integrative lens taking on a holistic perspective that allows for the integration of multiple aspects of sustainability ( e. g. ecological, environmental, economic, socio-cultural -; local, regional and global; past, present and future ); A critical lens questioning predominant, takenfor-granted - patterns that are or may be unsustainable ( e. g. the idea of continuous economic growth, dependency on consumerism and associated lifestyles );
    See: h p: / / www. unesco.org. / educa on / justpublished_desd2009.pdf. This second report is based on a literature review ( Tilbury, 2011 ); a Global Monitoring and Evaluation Survey ( GMES ) sent to all Member States ( see Appendix 2 ); an Internal UN Review of ESD ( UNIR ), a number of UNESCO-commissioned - Countrybased Case Studies on ESD ( CS ), a Key Informant Survey ( KIS ), eight UNESCO-commissioned - reports on National ESD Journeys and, finally, input from the UNESCO Chairs who specialize in ESD.
    The second part of Chapter 2 visits different learning contexts for ESD: Early Childhood Care Education ( ECCE ), Primary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Education Training ( TVET ) and Non-Formal - Education.
    Case studies ( CS ) All five UNESCO Regions provided learning-based - case studies: Arab States ( 2 ), Africa ( 2 ), Asia Pacific ( 2 ), North America Europe ( 2 ), and Latin America Caribbean ( 4 ).
    From countries taking action in Biodiversity Education, 95 include it in primary education, 100 in secondary education, 83 in higher education, 85 in teacher education, 73 in TVET and 48 in non-formal - education ( Email Survey ).
    From wildlife conservation groups ( e. g., National Wildlife Federation, National Council for Science and the Environment, National Environmental Education Foundation, and Council of Environmental Deans and Directors ), to science-based - organizations ( e. g., American Meteorological Society, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and Federation of Earth Science Information Partners ), to education organizations ( e. g., American Association for the Advancement of Science Project 2061, Association of Science-Technology - Centers, and National Science Teachers Association ), a variety of NGOs conduct programs and surveys, produce brochures and kits, and write media articles to alert the public to the science underlying, impacts of, and possible solutions to climate change.
    At the different educational levels or modalities, 35 of those countries have action in primary education, 50 in secondary education, 80 in higher education, 88 in teacher education, 60 in TVET and 56 in non-formal - education ( Email survey ).
    Bansunkong draws upon the Sufficiency Economy philosophy of Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej as a foundation and common-cultural - reference point for its ESD processes; however it also draws upon the traditional knowledge and practices of the Akha people where possible.
    UN Photo Learning for sustainable development enables everyone to get back into complex and changing society by appropriating the mechanisms of thought and action, allowing it to understand the interactions between the local and the global perspective of the consumerist approach, based on our materialistic society and to envisage a lifestyle grounded on ethical conduct involving equality and solidarity ( UNESCO Chair Report, France ).
    China's Environment, Population and Sustainable Development for Education ( EPDESD ) Programme, an initiative of the Beijing Academy of Education Sciences, UNESCO, and the Chinese Ministry of Education, seeks to: demonstrate the role of education in facilitating sustainable development; to build young people's scientific knowledge; to increase their learning capacity; to impart upon them the values and lifestyles required for sustainable development; to teach students more about energy conservation, environmental protection and cultural diversity; to expand the construction of energy-efficient - and emission-reducing - schools; and to engage students in activities that mitigate social, economic, environmental and cultural problems for sustainable development ( Gendong, 2010: p.2., quoted in ( CS, China ).
    The M E literature review ( Tilbury, 2011 ) identified four key processes underpinning ESD: processes which stimulate innovation within curricula as well as through teaching and learning experiences; processes of active and participatory learning; processes which engage the whole system, and processes of collaboration and dialogue ( including multi-stakeholder -, and intercultural dialogue ).
    29 Learning in Specific ESD Contexts This section looks at the various ESD contexts: Early Childhood Care Education ( ECCE ), Primary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Education, Technical Vocational Education ( TVET ), Non-formal - Education, and Education in the Commercial / Private Sector.
    ESD is becoming a part in Creative Experience Activity of 2009 National Curriculum ESD is often integrated in related thematic areas environmental education, green growth education, energy education, climate change education, multi-cultural - education, etc.
    The first seeks to widen the space within existing, often national, curricula for ESD; the second challenges the entire system by reorienting: Educational content structure ( traditionally disciplinary-based -, conceptually abstract and separate from the real world, now moving toward exploration of community problems through interdisciplinary studies ); Learning processes ( traditionally teachercentred stressing transfer of knowledge and the development of cognitive skills, now moving toward student-centred - participatory learning that uses analytical thinking and decision-making - ); and ESD has become a key and / or integral component of secondary education.
    39 Eco-schools - has over 11.7. million students engaged in its programmes in 52 countries and works to empower students to be the change our sustainable world needs by engaging them in fun, action-oriented - learning.
    New forms of learning are emerging in the process: Interdisciplinary learning, project-based - learning, gaming, computer simulations, distance learning, backcasting, case-studies -, policy-laboratories -, problem-based - learning, bootstrapping, values education, ecological footprint analysis, transdisciplinary learning, experiential approaches, reflective journal writing.
    Besides the public universities, there are 52 private universities in Costa Rica and also a substantial number of para-universities -.
    The Talloires Declaration, a ten-point - action plan for incorporating sustainability in all IHE activities has been signed by 437 university leaders in over 50 countries.
    UN Photo / Ariane Rummery X Technical and Voca onal Educa on and Training The inter-sectoral - and interdisciplinary dimensions of education for sustainable development, which has deep ties with technical and vocational education and training ( TVET ) is bound to engender new ways of thinking, new social and ethical attitudes, and innovative responses aimed at fostering sustainable development and low-carbon - green practises.
    In 2010, the Minister of Higher Education made an urgent commitment to integrating training towards a green economy into Technical and Vocational colleges in South Africa.
    Training of the first group of twenty youths in solar geyser [ hotwater systems ] installation started in May 2010 at the Alexandra Campus spurred by the Department of Minerals and Energy's project to install one million household solar geysers by 2014.
    Driven by mostly economic interests and technological innovations, companies are beginning to re-orient - themselves to what is commonly referred to as the green economy and its related green skills and green jobs.
    For example, UNESCO published Media as partners in education for sustainable development: a training and resource kit, which Field Offices piloted ( Bird, Richard and Warwick, 2008 ) The UNESCO office in Bamako organized a workshop to support media production on sustainable development for journalists from Mali, Burkina, Guinea, Niger and Senegal.
    One of the secrets behind these successes lies in the way in which the ESD processes at Bansunkong have been structured to appeal to the ethno-cultural - and socioeconomic contexts of its students and its local community, and in the seamless nature of the transitions between the formal, non-formal - and informal teaching and learning activities that take place at the school.
    Learning in non-formal - learning 53 EMERGENCE OF NEW PARTNERSHIPS IN SUPPORT OF ESD Multi-stakeholder - Interaction The inter-sectoral - and interdisciplinary dimension of education for sustainable development is bound to engender new ways of thinking, new social and ethical attitudes, and innovative responses aimed at fostering sustainable development and low-carbon - green practices ( UNESCO Leaders Forum, 2011 ).
    Around the world, ideas like the green economy, the digital age, the knowledge society, communities of practice, and lifelong learning are leading to a reconfiguration or at least a rethinking of how groups in society can connect and become more innovative, creative and resilient.
    Mainstreaming environment and sustainability concerns for sustainable development - which underpins GUPES, involves a transformative learning process and new ways of thinking about teaching, research and community engagement.
    ESD implies a life pedagogy which recreates the model of the present society and presents a more sustainable civilization project, with social justice and reduction of poverty; ESD implies a new idea of curriculum, based on meaningful subjects and interdisciplinary proficiency which contributes to build a feeling of belonging to the Planet; ESD implies cooperative, supportive, dialogic and democratic learning processes, which require the participation of all members in the planning, execution and evaluation of education; ESD implies new public policies that can articulate the educative potentialities present in schools, civil society, government and in the private sector aiming at activities, projects and plans that intermingle when in action; ESD requires a new conception of time and space with flexible cycles that can guarantee different kinds of experiences in environments intentionally organized for the living of sustainable life styles during the whole life ( within and outside the schools ).
    These include environmental education, global citizenship education and, more recently, consumer education, climate change education and education for disaster risk reduction.
    Driven mainly by economic interests and technological innovations, companies are beginning to move towards the green economy and its related green skills and green jobs.
    Various agencies are seeing a role for ESD in responding to emerging themes and issues like the green economy, climate change, disaster risk reduction, integral water management, sustainable resource governance, etc.
    Hence, one top priority to guide the way ahead is capacity-building - for Ministries of Education and key change agents, linked to forms of learning identified in this report: problem-based - learning, multi-stakeholder - social learning, interdisciplinary learning, action learning and critical thinking-based - learning.
    TVET and training with an ESD perspective, offering both hard and soft skills, is needed in green economies and green societies.
    As the world discusses green economies, it is evident that a sustainably literate workforce is essential Efforts should be made to work within climate change, biodiversity, and disaster risk reduction education to develop them as concrete examples of ESD.
    69 ACRONYMS 3Ps APEX CC People, Prosperity and Planet Accelerated Programme for Excellence Climate Change CEE Centre for Environment Education CJC Central Johannesburg College CRDP CS CSO DESD DRR ECCE Centre for Educational Research and Development Case Studies Civil Society Organization United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Disaster Risk Reduction Early Childhood Care and Education ECD Early Childhood Development ECE Economic Commission for Europe EE Environmental Education EFA Education for All EPD Environment, Population and Sustainable Development for Education ESD Education for Sustainable Development ETF European Training Foundation FAO Food and Agriculture Organization GUNi GUNES Global University Network for Innovation Global Universities Network for Environment and Sustainability GMEF Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework Global Monitoring and Evaluation Survey IBE UNESCO International Bureau of Education IAC United Nations Inter-Agency - Committee ICT Information and Communication Technology IHE Institution of Higher Education IIS IJSHE ILO ISCED ITP JFIT 70 International Implementation Scheme International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education International Labour Organisation International Standard Classification of Education International Training Programme Japanese Funds in Trust KIS M E Key Informant Survey Monitoring and Evaluation MDGs Millennium Development Goals MESA Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability in African Universities MEEG Monitoring and Evaluation Expert Group NEPA National Environment and Planning Agency NESDJ NGO National ESD Journeys Non-Governmental - Organization NJESD National Journeys toward Education for Sustainable Development OMEP Organisation Mondiale pour l Éducation Préscolaire PERL RCE REDIES SD SEES SNCAE TVET Partnership for Education and Research about Responsible Living Regional Centre of Expertise Network of Sustainable Institutions of Higher Education Sustainable Development School of Environmental and Earth Sciences Sistema Nacional de Certificación Ambiental de Establecimientos Educacionales Technical and Vocational Education and Training UG University of Guyana UN United Nations UNAIDS United Nations Joint Programme on HIV / AIDS UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCBD United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity UNCCD United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification UNDP UNECE UNEP United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNEVOC UNESCO International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNICEF UNIR UNLD United Nations Children's Fund Internal review of the contributions of UN agencies to ESD United Nations Literacy Decade UNU United Nations University USM University Sains Malaysia 71 REFERENCES Bird, E., Lutz, R. and Warwick, C. 2008.
    80 universities in 40 African countries worked together to integrate ESD into their teaching as part of UNEP's Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability in African Universities ( MESA ) Partnership Programme.
    A number of high-quality - UNESCO materials for Climate Change Education in the context of ESD are being made available to decision-makers - and practitioners ( e. g. Climate Change in the Classroom: UNESCO The overall goal of the UNESCO Strategy for the Second Half of the DESD is to support Member States and other stakeholders in addressing global sustainable development challenges at regional, national and global level through ESD, thus addressing the challenges of learning for bringing about a more sustainable world.
    United Nations Global Compact www. unglobalcompact. org Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) www.fao.. org United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ) International Labour Organization ( ILO ) www.ilo.. org www. unhcr.org. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS ( UNAIDS ) www. unaids. org United Nations Human Settlements ProUnited Nations Children's Fund ( UNICEF ) www. unicef.org. United Nations Population Fund ( UNFPA ) United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity ( UN CBD ) www.cbd.. int United Nations International Strategy for DiUnited Nations Convention to Combat Desertification ( UNCCD ) www. unccd. int United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ( UN DESA ) www. un. org / en / development / desa United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP ) www. undp.org. gramme ( UN-HABITAT - ) www. unhabitat.org. www. unfpa.org. saster Reduction ( UNISDR ) www. unisdr.org. United Nations Institute for Training and Research ( UNITAR ) www. unitar.org. United Nations University ( UNU ) www. unu.edu. World Food Programme ( WFP ) www.wfp.. org 78 World Bank United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) www. unep.org. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) www. unesco.org. World Health Organization ( WHO ) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ) www. unfccc.int. World Trade Organization ( WTO ) www.worldbank.. org www.who.. int www.wto.. org In advance of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development the Inter-Agency - Committee for the DESD prepared a comprehensive joint input into the Zero Draft of the outcome document.
    ( UNIR, UNICEF ) Building on existing structures, programmes, processes and research experience: This has particularly been helpful in Africa, where, for example, the Mainstreaming of Environment and Sustainability in African Universities ( MESA ) initiative drew from the environmental education work of leading universities.
    The various agencies in the UN system are seeing a role for ESD in responding to emerging themes and issues such as green economies, climate change, disaster risk reduction, integral water management, sustainable resource governance and a range of others.
    Seychelles X 81 ASIA PACIFIC Afghanistan X Australia X X X Germany X Hungary Georgia X X Bangladesh X Italy Bhutan X Kazakhstan X X X China X X Latvia X Fiji X X Lithuania X Indonesia X Malta X X Monaco X X Montenegro Japan Republic of Korea X Lao People's Democra c Republic X Netherlands X Poland Mongolia X X X X Spain Myanmar X X Norway Maldives X X X X Slovenia X New Zealand X Sweden X Nepal X Switzerland X Pakistan X X United States X Philippines X Sri Lanka X X Thailand Timor-Leste - X Tonga X Uzbekistan Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia X X X EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA Armenia X Austria X Belgium X Bosnia and Herzegovina X X X Bulgaria X Croa a X Cyprus X Denmark Estonia X X Finland 82 X France X
    UN Photo / Basile Zoma Ecuador X Guatemala LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN X Honduras X X X Jamaica X Mexico Bahamas X Panama Brazil X Peru Bri sh Virgin Islands X Saint Ki's and Nevis X An gua and Barbuda Argen na X X X X X X X Chile X X Trinidad and Tobago X Colombia X X Uruguay X X Venezuela ( Bolivarian Republic of ) X Costa Rica Cuba X X Dominican Republic X X Key Informant Survey ( KIS ) Australia DEEEP Developing Europeans Engagement for the Eradica on of Global Poverty Belgium ITECO Belgium UNESCO Chair in Special Educa on Needs University of Buea Cameroun UNESCO Chair in Reorien ng Teacher Educa on towards Sustainability - York University Canada China Na onal Working Commi ee for UNESCO China University of the South Paci c School of Educa on Fiji The OKKA Founda on Finland Ins tut EDIG Université de Bordeaux 3 France Solidarité Laique France Leuphana University of Luneburg ( 3 ) Germany Fair Trade Hellas Greece UNESCO Chair ICT in Educa on for Sustainable Development University of Crete Greece Centre for Environment Educa on ( CEE ) India EcoSchools Interna onal Interna onal based in Denmark Australian Associa on for Environmental Educa on 83 Interna onal Associa on of Universi es Interna onal based in France Soka Gakkai Interna onal Japan Islamic Informa on Centre ( IIC ) Malaysia Centro de Inves gaciones Tropicales Universidad Veracruzana Mexico Coordinacion Universitaria para la Sustentabilidad Universidad Veracruzana Mexico Ins tuto de Inves gaciones en Educacion Universidad Mexico Veracruzana Universidad Veracruzana Vicerrectoría Región Veracruz Mexico OPEN Universiteit ( OUNL ) Netherlands PERL The Partnership for Educa on and Research about Responsible Living Norway UNESCO Chair Ecologically safe development of the large region The Volga Basin of the Nizhny Novgorod State University Russian Federa on Drustvo Humanitas Slovenia Peermariteburg South Africa Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia.
    UNICEF UNESCO O ce in Havana UNESCO O ce in Beijing UNESCO O ce in Beirut UNESCO O ce in Doha ( 2 ) UNU-IAS - Japan ( 3 ) UNEP UNESCO O ce in Windhoek UNESCO O ce in Harare UNESCO O ce in Apia UNESCO O ce in San ago de Chile UNESCO O ce in Almaty UNESCO SC / HYC / UWS UNESCO O ce in Venice UNESCO O ce in Yaounde UNESCO Interna onal Bureau of Educa on ( IBE ) UNESCO O ce in Addis Ababa UNESCO O ce in Kingston
    85 86 APPENDIX 3: MONITORING EVALUATION EXPERT GROUP ( MEEG ) Members Name Title / Institution / Country BRENES, Abelardo Special Advisor, Earth Charter Interna onal Costa Rica GOVINDA, Rangachar Senior Fellow and Head, School and Non-Formal - Educa on Unit Na onal University of Educa onal Planning and Administra on India MICHALOS, Alex Director of the Ins tute for Social Research and Evalua on Professor Emeritus of Poli cal Science University of Northern Bri sh Columbia, Canada NAGATA, Yoshiyuki Associate Professor, University of the Sacred Heart, Tokyo, Japan RAAIJ van Roel Na onal Coordinator Senior o cer - strategy and informa on Secretary of the Na onal Steering Commi ee on Learning for Sustainable Development Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Equality, Netherlands SHUMBA, Overson Dean, School of Mathema cs and Natural Sciences The Copperbelt University, Zambia THAMAN, Konai Professor Faculty of Arts and Law School of Educa on University of the South Paci c, Fiji ( Chair ) Professor of Sustainability Director of Academic and Corporate A airs ( Sustainability ) University of Gloucestershire, United Kingdom VARCHER, Pierre Member of the Swiss Na onal Commission for UNESCO ( 2004-2007 - ) Switzerland VASCONCELOS, Alcyone Programme Specialist in Educa on UNESCO Ins tute for Sta's cs ( UIS ) TILBURY, Daniella 87 88 Shaping the Education n of Tomorrow 2012 Report on the UN Decade of Education i for Sustainable Development, Abridged The challenge of sustainable development is as significant as ever.
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  • UNESCO-UNEVOC bulletin, 20

    Editorial Editorial UNESCO-UNEVOC - Bulletin 20 2012 is a special year for UNESCO - UNEVOC, as we are celebrating our 10 year anniversary.
    The Congress provided a unique global platform for almost 800 practitioners, experts and policy makers from around the world to share knowledge and reflection on the future of TVET.
    On Thursday 17 May 2012, a post - Congress meeting was held that brought together some 20 UNEVOC Centres from all parts of the world at a special UNEVOC Network meeting.
    Education in emergency situations has been recognized by UNESCO as a flagship programme of Education for All ( EFA ).
    More information about the onlin e conference First meeting of the interagency working group on greening TVET and skills development Bonn, Germany, 10-11 - April On 10-11 - April 2012, UNESCO - UNEVOC hosted the first interagency working group meeting on greening TVET and skills development in Bonn, Germany.
    Co-organized - by UNESCO-UNEVOC - International Centre and UNESCO Kabul Office in partnership with the UNESCO TVET Section, the meeting aimed to: x x x x x discuss concerns, issues and prospects in the field of TVET from a global perspective; share experience and challenges in TVET and skills development from an Afghan's perspective; provide inputs to the designing of Afghanistan National Technical and Vocational Research Center ( ANTVRC ) and its establishment; foster capacity building with regard to the development and successful implementation of a National TVET Strategy ( NTVETS ) in Afghanistan; provide peer learning and study visit opportunities for knowledge-sharing - among the development partners and stakeholders in TVET.
    In an informal manner, members discussed previous achievements and presented various ideas / actions for future collaboration including: x x x x The sharing of experiences and practices on determining key indicators and measuring results in entrepreneurship education / entrepreneurial learning The sharing of good practices in entrepreneurial learning Contributing to the Third International Congress on TVET e-Forum - moderator driven discussion on social entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship education seeks to provide learners with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success, both through self-employment - and through encouraging an entrepreneurial mindset of employed persons.
    Links Representatives of the National Council for Technical and Technological Educati on, Sudan, visit UNEVOC on 6 May 2010 Sub-regional - consultation meeting of the UNEVOC Network in Africa: The role of UNEVOC Centres in furthering the African Union 2nd Decade of Education for Africa TVET Plan of Action 13-16 - December, in Nairobi, Kenya The UNESCO-UNEVOC - International Centre organised, in cooperation with Chepkoilel University College, a constituent of Moi University in Kenya and UNEVOC Centre, a sub-regional - consultation meeting on the role of UNEVOC Centres in furthering the African Union Second Decade of Education for Africa TVET Plan for action, in Nairobi, Kenya.
    Meeting report: Regional Network meeting in Commonwealth of Independent States ( CIS ) W ith the aim of sharing knowled ge, fostering cooperation and mobilizing expertise and resources to enhance the role of TVET in meeting the educational, economic and social needs in the countries of the CIS and regions of the Russian Federation, the inauguration meeting of the UNEVOC CIS Regional Network was held at the Bashkir Institute of Social Technologies ( branch of ) the Educational Institution of Trade Unions' Academy of Labor and Social Relations' in Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, on 29 June - 1 July 2011.
    Meeting report: International conference preparing TVET educators for the next generation The conference, which was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 12 to 13 December 2011, objectified to reflect on the significance of global challenges in TVET educators' development and aimed to stimulate efforts and participation in discussions among decision makers, policy implementers, senior administrators, curriculum developers, and academic professionals to build awareness and information on emerging issues and cooperation frameworks for the development of TVET educators.
    After the presentation's, the talks focused on possibilities for increased collaboration, followed by a short discussion on the 3rd TVET congress, where Mr Park will be chairing a UNEVOC session on strengthening the UNEVOC Network.
    The members of the delegati on were: Adelina Kirilova Lyubomirova Nikolay Yordanov Nikolov Atanas Nenov Atanasov Vasilatanasov Hristov Marian Tzetanov Tzankov German Commission for UNESCO visits UNEVOC On 22 March 2012, Mr. Shyamal Majumdar, Head of UNESCO UNEVOC, welcomed Dr. Roland Bernecker, Secretary General of the German Commission for UNESCO, and Dr. Anke Dörner, Head of the Division of Education, Communication and Information for the German Commis sion for UNESCO, at the Centre's premises.
    Mr. Majumdar presented about the UNEVOC's recent activities, the upcoming TVET congress in Shanghai and UNEVOC's 10 year anniversary.
    The talks furthermore focused on issues relating to TVET including: x x x x x The lack of sufficient financial, technical and human capital needed to transform the national economy The importance of making clear policies and incentives that can stimulate the private sector in development programmes Enhancing access to external sources of finance to achieve better quality provision in TVET for emerging economies, through both public and private funds Promoting private sector participation in development programmes Making microfinance more effective for TVET programmes at the country level Established by the German Sparkassen - Finanzgruppe, the Savings Banks Foundation is set up to support financial institutions, and to promote a sustainable economic and social development at a local, regional or national level.
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  • Asia-Pacific regional guide to equivalency programmes

    62 62 63 63 63 64 66 66 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Capacity building and development framework for EP stakeholders Figure 2: Capacity building and development framework for EP facilitators.
    Gwang-jo - Kim Director UNESCO Bangkok 1 UNESCO Bangkok ( 2006 ), Equivalency Programmes ( EPs ) for Promoting Lifelong Learning.
    Had the gender parity been achieved, 3.6. million more girls would have received primary education.
    There are large regional, national and in-country - disparities in quality of education.
    Equivalency Programmes ( EPs ) for Promoting Lifelong Learning UNESCO Bangkok, 2006 Today it is globally recognised that learning does not begin and end with a child's entry into and graduation from the formal schooling system.
    EPs must be comparable to formal education in all aspects including curricula, certification, policy support, delivery mechanisms, educational standards and quality assurance, capacity building, learning assessment, and monitoring and evaluation.
    Goals EPs aim to equip learners with the moral, ethical, and intellectual capabilities to enjoy a good quality of life, the ability to undertake a career and to engage in continuous learning.
    The goals of EPs may be considered as follows: Providing alternative educational programmes equivalent to existing formal general / basic and vocational education, in order to achieve EFA goals, Providing educational access to all target groups and thereby strengthening basic human rights, Promoting and supporting human resource development by raising the educational levels of the total population, Promoting individual socio-economic - benefits through comparable academic and vocational education and helping learners to become productive citizens, Promoting learners to become learning persons, with skills in searching for knowledge, assessing diverse learning sources, and integrating knowledge for development of self, family, community, society and the country.
    3 Quality Assurance Indicator 3.2.: Relevancy of materials and learning to the curriculum and learning activities To ensure that EPs are comparable to formal education, educational quality must be subject to regular assessment through the use of standards and indicators.
    Indicator 4.1.: Quality of the provision of IFE Indicator 3.4.: Appropriateness of facilitators and instructors Indicator 3.5.: Quality of learners / recipients Indicator 5.1.: Quality of personnel development Based on the national educational assurance system, the Office of Non-Formal - and Informal Education ( ONIE ), Ministry of Education, Thailand, has set up standards and indicators for non-formal - and informal education as follows: Standards and Indicators of Non-formal - and Informal Education ( 6 standards and 22 indicators ) Indicator 5.2.: System of data for management and administration Indicator 5.3.: Capacity of administrator in organisational administration Indicator 5.4.: Quality of organisational administration Indicator 5.5.: Quality of internal quality assurance Indicator 6.1.: Participation in provision of NFE and IFE of the network parties Indicator 6.2.: Support and promotion for the network parties to provide NFE and IFE Indicator 1.1.: Inter-relation - between philosophy, vision, goals / missions, objectives, strategies and implementation Indicator 1.2.: Coverage of missions in educational quality development plan and annual action plan 4 Indicator 1.3.: Monitoring and evaluation, and utilisation of the results in terms of improvement Indicator 2.1.: Development of school-based - curriculum Of the 6 standards, standard 2 and 3 relate to EPs and are used for evaluation of quality of EPs.
    Example 1: Indicator 2.2.: Relevancy of materials and learning sources to the curriculum and learning activities Indicator 2.2.: Relevancy of materials and learning sources to the curriculum and learning activities Indicator 2.3.: Emphasis on learner-centered - approach in learning provision Indicator 2.4.: Potential in provision of NFE of facilitators and educational personnel Indicator 2.5.: Quality of facilitators and educational personnel Indicator 2.6.: Knowledge and capacity of NFE graduates 1.
    Today, the levels of education reached by equivalency programmes include primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education.
    Some common objectives are as follows: to widen access to education for disadvantaged communities and support the completion of basic education and secondary schooling, to provide an alternate channel of education of an equivalent standard to the formal schooling system, to empower students through capacity building and skills development so that they can become self-reliant -, and to improve life skills so there is an improvement in the standard of living and quality of life of communities.
    Reasons that prevent such persons from attending school may include: Difficult geographical terrain: for example, ethnic minorities living in isolated areas, people living in hilly areas, island people, Poverty: affected persons may include street children, the rural poor, urban slum people, Socio-religious - factors: for example, students attending Islamic boarding schools with no formal education service in Indonesia, and Muslim girls studying in madarassas ( schools for teaching Islamic law and theology ) in India, Time factors: for example, employed persons who do not have time to attend regular school.
    Flexibility in contents, studying time and learning process with the emphasis on integrating contents to actual ways of life of the learners, individual differences, and needs of the community and society 2.
    Imprisoned There are 3 levels of education, they are; 1.1. Primary Level 1.2. Lower Secondary Level 1.3. Upper Secondary Level 2.1. There are 5 strands of learning, they are; 2.2. The Strand on Learning Skills 2.3. The Strand on Basic Knowledge 2.4. The Strand on Occupation Performances 2.4. The Strand on Skills for Living 2.5. The Strand on Social Development The NFE Basic Education Curriculum B.E.. 2551 ( 2008 ) formulates standards of learning in accordance with 5 strands of learning to identify the quality of learners as follows:
    D ) Development of examination and accreditation ( certification ) system e ) Affiliation of organisation / institutions offering courses under the equivalency framework f ) Capacity building of affiliated organisations offering quality courses consistent with the national ( equivalence ) framework 40 hours of learning of each subject is equal to 1 credit Source: NFE Basic Education Curriculum B.E.. 2551 ( 2008 ) ( Equivalency Programmes - EPs ) 8 A plan for an EP framework in Bangladesh has been outlined by the Bureau of Non-Formal - Education ( BNFE ), Ministry of Primary Mass Education ( MOPME ), as follows;
    G ) Administering examinations and providing credentials ( certificates ) to graduates h ) Review of the process and revision of the framework, as required a ) Review of the current grade levels in formal and non-formal - primary and secondary education systems b ) Two separate teams one for primary education and the other for secondary education - to elaborate grade-wise -, subject-wise -, competence levels c ) Review and finalisation of the curriculum and core competence through consultation and expert review d ) Specifying the terms of reference, rules of procedures and authorities of the proposed national authority through a consultative process e ) Enactment of law establishing the authority f ) Formulating mechanism of awarding accreditation and equivalence g ) Study of similar systems in other countries h ) Formulation of exam rules, test administration system and frequency, student performance assessment procedures, process of communicating results i ) Survey of potential organisations j ) Setting standards and rules for affiliation k ) Open call for affiliations and validation of offers l ) According formal recognition of the organisations / institutions m ) Capacity analysis of the affiliated organisations n ) Organising training courses for affiliated organisations and for the national authority team members o ) Exposure visit to other countries 8 Anamnart, W. 2009.
    P ) As per exam rules throughout the country q ) Through a participatory evaluation and consultation process r ) National workshop ('s ) for consensus building on the levels of equivalency y Policy framework on equivalency is finalised: 2010 ( by MOPME jointly with the Ministry of Education ) y Curriculum framework for equivalency of various NFE programmes are finalised: 2010 ( by BNFE jointly with the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Directorate of Technical Education, Directore of Secondary and Higher Education, and Bangladesh Open University ) y The law is promulgated establishing a national authority and describing its scope of work, to support learners from both NFE and formal education: 2011 ( by MOPME jointly with the Ministry of Education, supported by the Prime Minister's Secretariat and approved by Cabinet ) y Rules and procedures of examination are circulated for public communication: 2011 ( by national authority for accreditation and equivalence ) y List of affiliated institutions are circulated for public communication: 2011 ( by national authority for accreditation and equivalence ) y Core team of the affiliated institutions are trained on the new system: 2011 ( by National Academy for Educational Management and National academy for Primary Education in association with the national authority for accreditation and equivalence as well as training institutions run by non-government - organisations ( NGOs ) ) y NFE graduates have certificates from the new authority: 2012-13 - ( by national authority for accreditation and equivalence ) y Study report is available to policy makers and planning core team members: 2013 14 ( by MOPME jointly with MOE ) Source: NFE Policy Implementation Plan ( 2010-2014 - ), Bureau of Non-Formal - Education 13 CURRICULUM AND LEARNING MATERIALS THREE 15 EPs must ensure that educational parity is achieved between non-formal - and formal education systems, while also ensuring that the specific requirements of non-formal - learners are appropriately addressed.
    There must be a variety of EP curricula to meet the diverse needs and interests of EP target groups, for example, there should be curricula for basic education, income generation programmes, life skills development, and vocational skills training.
    EP curricula are generally designed in accordance to the national curriculum framework and education guidelines.
    EP curricula must be comparable or equivalent to formal education curricula in all aspects, for example in learning outcomes, content areas, forms of teaching, and evaluation and certification,
    EP curricula design and construction vary from country to country, but all should begin with consideration of the following components: Objectives Learning experiences ( Contents ) Learning and teaching process Evaluation EP curricula can be organised and developed at central or local level.
    Steps in Curriculum Development Curriculum developers may consider the following steps: Identify target groups who they are and where they are, Identify the needs of learners and the society, Study national education laws, the national education framework, national education standards and socio-economic - trends to make a comparative matrix for outcomes of formal education and the EP curriculum, Identify learning and teaching contexts, i. e. infrastructure and existing learning-teaching - materials, Review pedagogy and andragogy, Set goals and objectives, Organise contents, Select appropriate learning and teaching activities, Develop comparability matrix between EP and formal education curriculum, Develop an evaluation scheme, Try out the curriculum, Review and revise the curriculum, Publish and disseminate the curriculum, Follow up to get feedback for improvement.
    Secondary Education Level Indonesia Equivalency Paket A Program ( for children who are not in the formal Primary School System ) 1 Pancasila and Civics Education 2 Religion 3 Indonesian Language 4 Mathematics 5 Science 6 Social Studies 7 Arts and Handicraft 8 Health and Sports 9 Local Content and Skills Source: Adopted by the Directorate General of Out-of - - School Education, Youth and Sports ( DIKMAS ), Ministry of Education and Culture in 199911 Accreditation and Equivalency ( A E ) Core Modules Communication Skills 10 LS 2 Science Math Problem Solving Sustainable Use of Resources and Productivity 6 LS 4 Development of Self and Sense of Community 26 LS 5 Expanding One's World Vision 6 In many countries education is compulsory only up to the lower secondary level.
    19 Thailand Indonesia Structure of NFE Basic Education Curriculum B.E.. 2551 ( 2008 ) ( Basic Education Equivalency Programme ) 12 Equivalency Paket B Program ( for children who are not in the formal Junior Secondary School System ) Compulsory Subjects / Credit Elective Subjects / Credit Compulsory Subjects / Credit Elective Subjects / Credit 1.
    Social Developments 6 6 Total 40 20 Religion 3 Indonesian Language 4 Mathematics Science 6 Social Studies Arts and Handicraft 8 Health and Sports 9 English 10 Local Content ( Skills ) 32 56 Quality of Life Development Activities 2 7 44 Pancasila and Civics Education 5 16 1 76 100 hours Source: Adopted by the Directorate General of Out-of - - School Education, Youth and Sports ( DIKMAS ), Ministry of Education and Culture in 199913 100 hours Remarks: The educational establishment must choose at least one elective subject with minimum 3 credits for learners to learn through project work approach.
    Cultural sensitivity, Flexible curriculum and timetable to meet the diverse learning needs of children as well as adult learners, Assessment and evaluation which is transparent in administration, informative in diagnosis and non-ranking - in publication, Teachers which are trained to provide services in accordance with the EP learning philosophy, Administrators cognizant of and sympathetic to the EP learning philosophy, Mutual respect for academic competence and attainment.
    Government and implementing partners who will understand and accept the significance of the EP in responding to the educational needs of those who have traditionally been excluded and marginalized because of poverty, disability, gender and isolation, Implementing partners, from the government and the private sector, including staff and members of NGOs, Community Service Organisations ( CSOs ) and CLCs whose members will understand, internalise and implement quality delivery mechanisms, Adult facilitators who are the direct providers of the instruction and who will be aware of their roles, functions and responsibilities in effectively discharging their diverse functions.
    Diagnose and Determine Capacity Gaps and Needs Initiating a new EP requires providing training that will produce the following personnel and skills: Education planners who will design and develop the policy framework and delivery modalities of the EP, Curriculum developers whose orientation is geared towards non-formal - education, and who understand the goals of an EP, Instructional materials developers who will produce learning materials that are practical, simple, easy to understand and responsive to the learning needs of diverse groups of learners,
    Y Development of project systems and procedures y Policy formulation and approval y Recruitment, selection, and training of project staff and facilitators y EP management and development approval y Capacity building of personnel and staff y Annual budgetary approval y Monitoring and evaluation y Resource generation and allocation y Reports and documentation y Programme development implementation plans y Resolution of major problems and concerns y Instructional materials development, reproduction and distribution y others y Financial management and controls y Resource generation and mobilisation y National They are directly under the office of the Ministry of Education and within the NFE Department.
    Y Advocacy and social mobilisation y Programme planning and implementation y Recruitment and motivation of potential learners y Monitoring and evaluation y Enrolment interview and leveling of prior learning y Financial management, audit and controls y Identification of learner's learning goals y Advocacy and social mobilisation y Conduct of learning group sessions y Technical reports and documentation y Supervision of self-learning - activities y Technical review and approval of project proposals y Capacity building for implementing partners EP Implementers national EP personnel These groups may represent actual service providers which are either governmental and / or from the private sector like CLCs, NGOs, CSOs, peoples organisations, and local government units.
    Y One-on - - one tutorials y Conduct of guidance and counselling sessions y Class sessions / lesson planning y Learners assessment y Learners portfolio preparation and assessment y Home visitation y Group activities and field trips y Resource generation and mobilisation y Conduct of community-based - assembly with parents and community leaders Various training methods and a mix of methods may be suitable for EP capacity building, depending on the context.
    Figure 1: Capacity building and development framework for EP stakeholders Process Outputs Outcomes Input 31 FACILITATORS: QUALIFICATION STANDARDS AND CAPACITY BUILDING NEEDS Facilitators: Qualification Standards and Capacity Building Needs FIVE 33 Facilitators are the key to the success of EPs.
    Involvement of the trainees in the design and decisionmaking process so they are a source of information sharing their cultural wisdom, culture, and diverse life experiences, enabling all facilitators, irrespective of position / status, culture, religion, race and specially gender to have equal opportunity and access in availing of CBD activity, focus is more on application of skills and knowledge and less on academics and high-sounding - theoretical approaches, allows the learner / trainee to immediately apply, utilise and put into action the learning gained and new skills acquired, provides meaningful and competency-based - training that is responsive to her / his job requirements and need for new knowledge and skills, creative and interesting approaches that promotes handson participation in skills-building - exercises, choice of training topics for new knowledge and information are built from field experiences as EP practitioners and from their personal lives, and
    Figure 2: Capacity building and development framework for EP facilitatiors Input Process Outputs Outcomes Performance-based - monitoring and evaluation of EP facilitators is a continuous process, which does not stop when the formal training sessions end.
    41 Figure 3: Steps in equivalency transfer of educational results Learners Supervisory Staff undertakes educational guidance of the whole curriculum Registration into the course Registration for equivalency transfer of educational results Staff in charge of checking educational documents Staff in charge of providing information on equivalency transferring Transferring from curriculum arranged into levels Transferring from continuing education Transferring from international program curricula Transferring from knowledge and experiences of special target group Transferring from evaluation of knowledge and experiences 42 Operating of equivalency transfer of educational results Operational result of transferring Fail Announcement and recording of the results Source: Research Report: Equivalency Transfer of Educational Results, Equivalency Transfer of Knowledge and Experience and Equivalency Determination of Educational Levels in Non-formal - Basic Education: A Case Study of Thailand; Sirindhorn Institute for Continuing Education and Development, Office of the Non-Formal - and Informal Education, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education; Supported By UNSECO Bangkok 2009.
    17 Hunar is a unique initiative to reach out to young Muslim girls studying in Madarassas.
    The test runs for 3 hours and 30 minutes for the Elementary Level, and 4 hours and 15 minutes for the Secondary Level.
    48 Bahagi I ( Communication ) - 40 minutes Bahagi II ( Problem Solving Critical Thinking - 60 minutes Bahagi III ( Sustainable Use of Resources Productivity ) - 40 minutes Bahagi IV ( Development of Self Expanding One's World Vision ) - 40 minutes Composition Writing - 30 minutes Bahagi I ( Filipino Communication ) - 45 minutes Bahagi II ( English Communication ) - 30 minutes Bahagi III ( Problem Solving Critical Thinking ) - 60 minutes Bahagi IV ( Sustainable Use of Resources Productivity ) - 45 minutes Bahagi V ( Development of Self Expanding One's World Vision ) - 45 minutes Composition Writing - 30 minutes A unique system that highlights the principle of flexibility has been developed in India in which a learner can take an examination as per her / his convenience.
    Some features of the examinations are as follows: AAs must inform NIOS about the date of examination and number of registered examinees at least one month before the scheduled date of examination, Question papers are based on a design and blueprint approved by NIOS, The medium of examination may be regional languages / Hindi / English, The state level agency designated by the NIOS as the state-coordinating - agency is also the monitoring agency for the OBE examination in their respective state, Academic facilitators and staff of NIOS may visit AAs during examination, 5 of answer books, question papers, and attendance sheets are procured from the AAs for random checking and evaluation, NIOS compares results data with enrolment data along with verification and editing of the results data before certification, State level agency appoints evaluators for checking papers, Results are prepared and signed by the authorised signatory before sending to NIOS for printing of certificates, Answer books are preserved by the AAs to make them available, if need be, for inspection by the authorised personnel of NIOS, Agency sends the result in CD in the prescribed format for printing of certificates, Jointly signed certificates are issued by the concerned agency and NIOS, AAs distribute the OBE certificates free of cost to the students.
    Without adequate finances, it is difficult to initiate a progarmme and a lack of finances for its implementation affects continuity and quality of the programme.
    Financial Management Basic EP funds are usually allocated for: Providing teaching materials and tools, writing modules and providing for stationery including development and printing of materials, Providing materials for practice and tools for skills education, Paying the honorariums / fees of tutors, administrators and implementers, Training for tutors and administrators, Evaluation and testing, Giving scholarships to exceptional students, Financial aid for poor learners, Vocational practice for life skills, Maintenance of facilities, Data management.
    In Indonesia, the Equivalency Education Programme tries to leverage the capability of different communities to provide education services to underserved populations.
    Areas of Networking and Partnership Building Development of courses, especially skills development courses based on local needs, possibly involving local industry for apprenticeship programmes, Engaging of faculty for special programmes experts from industry, education, other sectors can be invited for interaction with learners, Training programmes, Infrastructure sharing community halls, playgrounds can be shared, Monitoring village elders, community leaders can be involved in overseeing the programme, Examination and Certification government agencies can be approached for certification of the courses, Sponsorships and Awards learner motivation can be kept high through competitions and games which can be judged and awarded by sponsors, Advocacy local media can be kept updated about developments, and Research Feedback studies can be commissioned to external agencies so that there is independent review of the programme.
    The key stakeholders are: Government agency responsible for EP policy making, implementation and funding, Department / Bureau / Directorate that supervises the EP, Officials in study centres that conduct the EP, Tutor / Facilitator / Instructional Manager / Supervisor at the study centre.
    Monitoring and Evaluation Objective Oriented: Examines the extent to which objectives have been achieved focusing on specified goals and objectives, Management Oriented: Focuses on identifying and meeting the needs of decision makers, Process Oriented: Aims at improving the classroom process, teachinglearning process, use of teaching-learning - materials, classroom management, etc., Expertise Oriented: Focuses upon the professional development of teachers and facilitators, and Participant Oriented: Focuses on the involvement / participation of target groups.
    Figure 6: Examples of indicators y Space / classroom for learning y Space for performing activities y Drinking water facilities y Toilet facility y Play ground / space for games y Space for skill development workshops y Availability of supplementary materials y Library and its use y Laboratories, if there is any, for science and laboratory-based - courses y Attendance of learners and facilitator y Facility for tutorials / guidance y Financial support y Development of teaching-learning - materials y Availability of books and other study materials y Physical environment 64 y Social environment - Learner-learner - relationship - Facilitator-learner - relationship - Facilitator-facilitator - relationship - Facilitator-administrator - relationship - Facilitator-parent - relationship - Facilitator-community - relationship - Treatment of learners from marginalised groups - Participation of community in CLC activities - Facilities for convergence with other departments such as health, agriculture - Incentive schemes y Curriculum and its coverage y Number of days CLC is opened in a year y Curriculum revision exercise y Actual number of days teaching-learning - occurs y Number of academic and skill development programmes offered y Number of teaching hours / days y Competency-based - materials y Number of facilitators in CLC y Blackboard / ICT usage in class y Number of classes that each facilitator handles y Textbooks and their production y Learners attendance y Distribution of textbooks / course materials y Availability of teaching-learning - materials y Policy for - Grades / marks y Facilitator profile
    - Recording procedures in schools y In-service - experience y Feedback mechanism used by facilitators y Difficulties faced during teaching y Timely remedial and corrective measures y Ability to develop and use teaching-learning - materials y Involvement of parents in Village Education Development Committee meeting y Motivation level of facilitator y Procedure to give feedback to parents y Role of state bodies in training / re-training - of facilitators y Monitoring classroom processes y Recognition by national government and legal validity of EP Certificate y Provision of transfer from formal education to EP and vice versa y Classroom organisation y Number of learners transferring between the two systems y Display of materials in the classroom y Linkages of EP databases to national education databases y Facilities for keeping teaching-learning - materials y Recognition of EP learners by industry y Grouping of learners y Number of learners who have been able to secure employment y Methods of introducing the topic y Teaching-learning - process y Use of teaching-learning - materials y Learner initiatives in teaching-learning - process y Assessment processes y Frequency of assessment Monitoring and Evaluation y Pupil-facilitator - ratio 65 Sample Monitoring and Evaluation Activity Report An example structure for of a monitoring and evaluation report is as follows:
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